Even though it is hard to pinpoint what it means to be an academic, the to-your-left-mentioned concepts or methods can, when applied, push you in the right direction.
These are not a point-by-point list for you to follow, but understanding their significance can push you in the right direction towards an understanding of what it means to be an academic.
Videos for elaboration
As the scientific personnel elaborate in the videos below, working scientifically can be characterized by working systematically, methodically, to develop new knowledge or to make sure you quote relevant sources and cite them adequately. In the following video Gitte Stald, associate professor at ITU, articulates what it means to work scientifically. (The video has English subtitles)
Hear how Lone Malmborg, associate professor at ITU, talks about some of the characteristics of working scientifically.
Rune Møller Jensen, associate professor at ITU, also highlights important aspects of academia.